Temperatures vary dramatically depending on which side of the moon is day or night for a total of 13 days. They range from 127 degrees Celsius, 260 Fahrenheit in the day to -173 degrees Celsius, -280 Fahrenheit at night
Diameter of Moon is 3474 km, 2159 miles
or 27.2% of Earths diameter
Surface Area of Moon is about 14.6 million square miles, 38 000 000 square km
or 7.4% of Earths surface area
The moon weighs 7.3476 × 10^22 kg, 1.61988463 × 1023 lbs
or 1.23% Earths mass.
The moons atmosphere is very thin and almost non-existent with small amounts of helium, argon, and possibly neon, ammonia, methane and carbon dioxide.
We don’t know what the Lunar core is made of, because we haven’t been that far. Theory assumes a composition based on total mass and strength of the magnetic field. They contest that a small iron core accounting for only 1-3% of total mass exists at the center.
In comparison Earths core apparently contains 33% of the planets total mass.
Because of the Apollo landings from 1969 – 1972 we have extracted 380.96 kilograms, 829.9 lbs of lunar rock from a depth of 3 meters. This surface rock contains 43% oxygen, 22% silicon, 13.5% iron, 8% calcium, 7% aluminum, 6% magnesium, and 4.5% other elements.