Mars

Average global temperature of Mars is -57% degrees Celsius, -70.6 degrees Fahrenheit with a range between 20 degrees to -125 degrees Celsius, 195 degrees to 70 degrees Celsius.

Diameter of Mars is 6779 kilometres, 4212 miles

or 53% of Earths diameter

Surface area of Mars is 144 798 500km2, 55 91 000 mi²

or 38% of Earths surface area

Mars weighs 6.39 × 10^23 kg

or 10.7% of Earths mass

Atmospheric composition of Mars is 95% carbon dioxide 2.7% Nitrogen, 0.13% Oxygen and 0.08% Carbon Monoxide compared to Earths atmosphere being mostly composed of Nitrogen

We don’t know what the Martian core is made of, because we haven’t been that far. Theory assumes a composition based on total mass and strength of the magnetic field. They contest that it is made of primarily iron, and nickel with 16-17% sulfur.

We haven’t dug very far in to Mars. The Curiosity rover only tested a small 1.3 centimeter drill. Based on collections of loose surface rock the most common elements in Martian crust are silicon, oxygen, iron, magnesium, calcium, aluminum and potassium.

Abundant compounds include tholeiitic basalt and a thick layer of iron oxide dust at the surface.

Soil is alkaline, composed primarily  of magnesium, sodium, potassium and chlorine

Martian ice caps are made of 70% water. 1 meter thick layer of carbon dioxide accumulates at the north pole during winter.

News:

9/24/18: Origami Style Folding Habitats For The Moon and Mars

9/20/18 Towable ‘ScanMars’ Water Radar Tested on Earth

9/15/18 Emerging Lunar Factions and How Space-X Will Drill For Water on Mars

9/12/18 New Martian Architecture of Colonization

8/20/18 Mars Terraforming Debate and Elon Musks Private Meeting

7/28/18 Phase 3 Level 1 of Mars Habitat Contest Complete: 5 Models Chosen

7/25/18 Liquid Water Found Beneath South Pole of Mars

6/15/18 Organic Matter Discovered on Mars and Ceres