A new discovery could lead to even better quantum computers by encoding them in more dimensions. In this case – two instead of three.
Right now the range of successfully entangled qubits sits between 50-75 qubits max. Scientists have struggled to get it much higher than that, which is not to say that they won’t in the future but if we can find another way to increase informational complexity in the meantime we should pursue that option as well.
A recent experiment conducted at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Science suggests that you may be able accomplish more by increasing the total number of dimensions each qubit is codified in. Qubits are usually encoded in 2 dimensional pairs, that is they solve for x and y but not z, by increasing the dimensional complexity and solving for z they’ve also increased the upper threshold of potential informational complexity by essentially ‘doing more with less’.
“The special thing about our experiment is that for the first time, it entangles three photons beyond the conventional two-dimensional nature,” says Manuel Erhard, one of the authors of the study.
According to Anton Zeilinger, who was another author on the study, “I think the methods and technologies that we developed in this publication allow us to teleport a higher proportion of the total quantum information of a single photon, which could be important for quantum communication networks.”
Quantum computing has so much potential due to the complexity of entangled particle system. By keeping the particle in it’s “wave-function” while at the same time, using magnetic fields to subtly adjust each wave pattern towards x or y respectively, you’re essentially encoding a structure in time. Now by adding the extra dimension of z, they’ve increase the total amount of surface area on a pair of entangled photonic spheres that can be utilized to do work. As a result of this decreasing the informational entropy so that more data can be programed in the same amount of space.